Life Fitness Anatomy Course Outline
Intro to Human A&P/ Homeostasis
• Review of the 11 major organ systems: the major organs of each organ system will be introduced along with the primary functions of each organ system.
• Review of anatomical terms: the language of anatomy will be introduced, including anatomical regions and directional terms.
• Homeostasis and negative feedback: homeostasis is a major theme throughout human anatomy and physiology. Both temperature regulation and blood-glucose regulation will be used as examples of how the body maintains a stable internal environment.
• Positive feedback and childbirth: when positive feedback occurs in the body, it is often associated with dangerous consequences. However, there a re a few healthy examples of positive feedback (like childbirth) that are quite natural.
• Atomic structure: the electrons, neutrons, and protos will be discussed
• Bond formation: examples of ionic and covalent bonding will be discussed
• Chemical reactions (e.g., redox, anabolic, catabolic): to understand digestion, one must understand how chemical bonds are broken (catabolic). To understand how nutrients are used in the body, one must also understand synthesis (anabolic) and REDOX reactions.
• Biological molecules: Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids will be explored in detail
• The importance of water will be thoroughly reviewed
• Cell structure: A review of the cell membrane (including how nutrients enter/ waste products leave the cell) and all major organelles
• Cellular respiration: An in-depth review of how cells convert food into energy
• Protein synthesis: learn how proteins are synthesized from amino acids inside of the cell
• Roles of various nutrients (glucose, fatty acids) in energy production, as well as a discussion of glycemic index/load
• Review the major vitamins and minerals needed for metabolic activities
• Energy storage (learn the metabolic pathways that result in the conversions of glucose into fats)
• A review of the major hormones that affect metabolic activities, including nutrient storage and breakdown
• Learn the anatomy of the heart, including the major heart chambers and valves
• Describe the blood flow through the heart
• Describe how the body regulates heart rate, blood flow, blood pressure to accommodate the changes in bodily function
• Review of capillary exchange: describe how nutrients, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the body’s tissues and the blood
• Learn the diagnostic values of ECGs and Blood Pressure
• Cardiac Cycle: review the major events during one single heartbeat
• A review of blood lab work (important measurements to make note of, and what they mean)
Endocrine and Nervous Systems
• Major endocrine glands and their hormones: you will be provided with a chart that will e filled in during this class. This chart will list all the major endocrine glands, their hormones, and the target tissues of these hormones
• Stress response: a review of how both the nervous systems and certain hormones work to prepare the body for a stressful scenario. Also discussed are the dangerous long-term consequences of chronic stress in the body.
• Endocrine disorders: a review of the major endocrine disorders (e.g., diabetes mellitus, pituitary dwarfism, Hashimoto’s disease, etc.…) will be discussed
Autonomic Nervous System & Integumentary System
• Stress response: a discussion of how stress affects digestion, and the consequences of long-term stress on human physiology
• The importance of Inflammation and tissue repair, the consequences of long-term inflammation in the human body
• Review of the major functions of the digestive system: Ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
• The role of the Liver in detoxification and biological transmutations
• Digestive enzymes and digestive secretions and their role in chemical and mechanical digestion
• The function and importance of the microbiome
Respiratory and Lymphatic Systems
• Gas exchange (oxygen and carbon dioxide) across the alveolar membrane
• Acid – base balance in the blood, and how this is related to carbon dioxide levels.
• The role of the lymphatic system in Detoxification of the body
• Review of the major lymphatic organs and tissues (e.g., tonsils, spleen, Peyer’s patches in small intestine, etc.….)
• Defense and Immunity: review of the immune cells (T & B cells), the importance of natural immunity, and the major innate defenses
Urinary System / Fluids and Electrolytes
• The role of the kidneys’ in the elimination of wastes from the major bodily fluids
• The role of the kidneys in acid-base balance
• Urinalysis lab work (important measurements to make note of, and what they mean)
Reproductive Systems / Pregnancy &Dev.
• A review of Egg and sperm development
• Ovarian and Uterine Cycles in females, and the hormones that regulate these cycles
• A review of the major events that occur during Prenatal development
Muscular and Skeletal Systems
• Review of major muscles and bones in human body
• Calcium homeostasis, and the role of the skeleton
• Muscle contraction, and the importance of calcium (including a review of how calcium imbalances affect muscle function)
• How muscles create ATP, lactic acid, Cori cycle Ch. 6 – 11